Best Basic Functions of Corporate Finance (2024)

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Best Basic Functions of Corporate Finance (2024)

An overview

Corporate finance is the backbone of the overall business world and it is very important to understand corporate finance well to know about the business so before knowing how to run a corporate

it is very important to know about the basic functions of corporate finance that how does it work in finance.

In today’s generation it is very important to know about corporate finance because the importance of corporate finance in business is increasing so fast because all the people want to enter the business world which is the dream of every youth.

The main focus of corporate finance is to maximize shareholder wealth as quickly as possible because increasing shareholder value brings many benefits to the company. It provides the management of a company with a long-term perspective

That’s why in this blog we will talk about basic functions of corporate finance in which we will understand all the functions like capital budgeting, dividend decisions, capital investment, corporate governance and all. So let’s begin

Basic functions of corporate finance

The modern approach to corporate finance is concerned with the solution of major problems like investment financing and dividend decisions of the financial operation of a business enterprise.

Thus, the basic functions of corporate finance can be broadly classified into their major decisions, namely:

  1. Capital Budgeting.
  2. Dividend Decision.
  3. Capital Investment.
  4. Corporate Governance.
  5. Financing Decision.
  6. Capital Markets.
  7. Investment decision.
  8. Diversification.
  9. Financial Management.
  10. Capital financing
  11. Statutory merger
  12. Raising capital
  13. Capital structure
  14. Decision making
  15. Financial control
  16. Financial analysis
  17. Financial reporting
  18. Cash manangement

All the basic functions of corporate finance are written below and explain properly

1. What is meaning and definition of Capital Budgeting?

What is meaning and definition of Capital Budgeting

The meaning and definition of Capital budgeting is a procedure that involves estimating the anticipated major operations or investments of your business.

Capital budgeting is made up of 2 terms ‘Capital’ and ‘Budgeting’ Capital means the funds currently available in the company and budgeting means deciding in which project the funds are to be invested.

Capital budgeting opinions require a comparison of disbursements against profit revenues in the long time that’s why is also sufficient in basic functions of corporate finance.

Capital budgeting is implemented after the process is completed and there are some steps involved in completing this process, so one of those steps is written below:

  • Determine investment Prospects
  • Convene investment recommendation
  • Decide on projects for capital budgeting
  • Prepare and appropriate in capital budgeting
  • Implement capital budgeting
  • Accomplish a performance review

Capital budgeting also includes some methods which are written below:

  • Internal rate of return (IRR)
  • Net present value (NPV)
  • Payback period
  • Profitability index (PI)

2. What is the meaning of dividend decision?

What is the meaning of dividend decision

The meaning of Dividend decision is that the profit should be distributed to the shareholders out of the total net profit of the company.

And how much portion of the company’s profits should be retained in the firm to meet the company’s investment requirements.

This judgement of the company should be taken preserving in mind that the objective of enhancing shareholders’ wealth.

Dividend decision is a strategic decision in which the company has to decide whether how to distribute the company’s earnings. and it plays a sufficient role in basic functions of corporate finance.

There are certain factors that can influence the dividend decision, so it is important to know them so that none of these factors are used in the dividend decision which are as follows:

  • Stability of dividends
  • Amount of earnings
  • Stability of earnings

3. What is the meaning of capital investment?

What is the meaning of capital investment

Capital investment is considered extremely essential in the basic functions of corporate finance:

The meaning of Capital investment is that any company obtains liquidity to achieve its long-term goals.These capitals can include Real Estate, Technology, Machinery and manufacturing plants.

Capital investment can also make any capitalist organization relevant. One who loans money to a firm in exchange for a share in the profits. and this category of capital investment is mostly made through venture capital groups.

4. Explain financial decision

Explain financial decision

We explain financial decision properly because it is essential in basic functions of corporate finance:

It is only job of a financial manager to take financial decisions about how to finance an organization. Financial decisions are very important because they determinate the overall expenditure of a company’s assets and financial risk.

This includes analyzing the risk and expense of each Origins of Wealth and confirming how much is to be provided from each Origin.

Financial decision is a very difficult task because the whole company depends on the decision so one has to think a lot before taking the decision.

Some examples have been taken without the help of which the examples can be understood and these examples are basic functions of corporate finance.

  • Investment decision
  • Financial decisions
  • Dividend decisions

5. Define meaning of Capital Markets

Define meaning of Capital Markets

The meaning of Capital markets are the financial markets that associate buyers and retailers of financial riches such as stocks and currencies.

Capital markets are places where you can raise sustainable funds by selling bonds and equities. that’s why capital markets are most essential function in basic functions of corporate finance.

Capital markets also provide you some products which protect themselves from risks in banks and business.

Capital markets help in energizing people with concepts and also help small business companies to grow into big companies. It also give people the prospect to save and invest for their future.

The capital market is divided into two categories in which the first category is named primary market and the second category is named secondary market. which are based below:

  1. Primary markets: It Deals mostly with new securities and shares, where a company issues new securities in exchange for cash from investors.
  2. Secondary markets: This is where investors come to sell their shares and securities such as shares and bonds after they have been issued in the primary market.

6. What is the definition of Investment decision?

What is the definition of Investment decision

The definition of Investment decision is a long term decision which involves huge involvement of resources. It involves selecting a fund and a business in which the money will be spent by a company.

This is the important basic function in corporate finance And some roles are also included below.

  • Buying property.
  • Purchasing new equipment.
  • Expanding into new markets.

Investment decision is usually taken in these factors which are written below:

  • Profitability index.
  • Internal rate of return.
  • Payback period.
  • Net profit value.
  • Formulae.

What are the Features of investment decision?

What are the Features of investment decision

These are the several features of investment decision which are as follows:

  1. Capital budgeting verdict contains a huge expenditure.
  2. The current capital are invested in long term riches.
  3. The substitute of current expenditure for future advantages .
  4. The future benefits will take place to the firm over a series of years
  5. Capital expenditure once approved cannot be reserved
  6. It is withdrawn without sustaining a loss.

7. Explain diversification

Explain diversification

We are explain Diversification properly because It plays an important role in basic functions of corporate finance ,it refers the process of boosting the diversity of something or making it specialised.

For example, diversification in business is a strategic plan to reduce risk. It involves adding products, services, customers, etc. to the portfolio of a business.

Diversification helps a lot in reducing economic slowdown and failure in any business or firm.

The primary goal of diversification is to reduce portfolio volatility and improve returns by investing in areas in which you can get greater returns in the long run.

8. Explain simple definition of financial management

Explain simple definition of financial management

The simple definition of financial management is all about monitoring, securing, controlling, and reporting a company’s financial resources.

All companies have an accountant or financial team as an employee who keeps track of all the expenses, investments, profit shares, etc. of the entire firm.

The main role of financial management is to plan and organize the use of financial activities in any company.

There are many types of methods and functions which play a very major role in financial management and basic functions of corporate finance so we have given the details of all the functions below.

What is the objectives and functions of financial management

These are the several objectives and functions of financial management in which are as follows:

objectives and functions of financial management
Objectives of financial managementFunctions of financial management
Profit MaximizationEvaluating Capital Requirement
Buissiness survivalEvaluating Capital Constitution
High EfficiencyDetermining the Source of Capital
Balanced structureTaking Investment Decisions
Reduce risksManaging Surplus Money
Proper mobilizationManaging Liquidity
Financial Control

9. Explanation of capital raising meaning

Explanation of capital raising meaning

The Capital raising meaning is a procedure by which companies, businesses or firms raise assets or funds from external sources to finance their financial operations and achieve their strategic goals.

These goals can take many forms, for example growth, expansion, rebalancing or investing in another type of asset, the capital structure of the company. capital raising is a essential part of basic functions of corporate finance because it can increase the overall growth of the company.

Companies can raise capital through various methods which are clearly written and explained below:

  1. Debt Raising: Debt raising is also known as debt financing in which money is borrowed from a larger organization to meet specific needs of the company and there is a responsibility to repay that money later.
  2. Equity Raising: Equity raising is a process of raising money or capital in exchange for a certain amount of ownership of a business, which enables the company to meet all its expenses.
  3. Crowdfunding: Crowdfunding involves raising small amounts of capital from different people or organizations to finance a new business venture.

10. Explain the concept of capital structure

Explain the concept of capital structure

We are explain the concept of capital structure absolutely well in this paragraph, It refers to a method that a business company uses various equity and debt and various sources of funds to finance all the strategies and operations of the company.

The concept of capital structure is very different from other related factors that’s why it is characterized by common equity and hybrid securities, which the company or firm uses to finance its overall growth.

The capital structure of a company is important for a few reasons. We have written these reasons below so that you can fully understand the concept of capital structure:

  1. Cost of capital: The function of cost of capital is to measure the cost of business anchors and finance its expenses.
  2. Flexibility: Flexibility plays a big role in capital structure as it gives the company the ability to adjust to a mix of debt and equity financing.
  3. Investors conception: Investor perception plays a conscious role in capital structure as it refers to investors’ perception and preferences regarding how the capital structure of a company or business is designed.
  4. Financial risk: Financial risk is considered very important in capital structure as it largely depends on the company’s equipment, operations and expenses.

11. What is the explanation of decision making?

What is the explanation of decision making

We are providing to you overall explanation of decision making absolutely well in these paragraphs:

Decision making is a type of process in which all the decisions of the company business are discussed together and decisions are taken according to everyone’s opinion and consent.

These decisions can be of various types, for example gathering information, assessing alternative solutions, and all.

Step-by-step decision-making processes make conscious, thoughtful decisions by organizing relevant information and defining other alternatives.

This will help a lot that decisions will be taken with correct logic and their results will be positive or negative.

It is important to know what the decision making process is and what steps are adopted in it, that is why we have written its steps below:

  • Identifying alternative solutions.
  • Weigh the evidence.
  • Choose among alternatives.

12. Explore capital financing meaning

Explore capital financing meaning

Capital financing is the procedure of financing the expenses, operations, and specific needs of a company or business.and these funds and capital are available on both daily basis and long term basis.

These funds can be raised in many ways. For example, consider bank loans,Issuing of bonds and stocks, investments and taking assets from founding partners. all these methods are detailed below:

  1. Loans: Companies and firms can take loan by depositing some security in any commercial bank and the company will have to repay that loan with interest every month.
  2. Investments: Companies can borrow such investments from wealthy investors for their companies operations.
  3. Issuing bonds: Companies may issue bonds to retailers and institutional investors for capital financing.
  4. Issuing stocks: For capital financing, companies can launch an initial public offering (IPO) of common stock or sell some of their shares to equity investors.
  5. Capital from founding partners: The company may acquire certain assets from its founding partners for capital financing.

13. Explanation of statutory merger

Explanation of statutory merger

Statutory merger is a type of legal procedure in which one company merges with another company and the servicing company takes over all the liabilities, assets and rights of the other company.

Statutory merger generally works as a business tool to achieve company objectives, synergy and all.

The surviving company retains its name and identity, and the merged company ceases to exist as a divided legal entity.

Statutory merger is a type of merger. Similarly, there are several mergers which are described below:

  1. Forward triangular merger: When a company buys the target company through a shell company, it is called Forward triangular merger.
  2. Reverse triangular merger: Reverse triangular merger is a type of business where the acquiring company creates a subsidiary that is then merged with and absorbed by the target company.
  3. Reverse merger: A small company acquires a big company, this is called a reverse company.

14. What is the meaning of financial control?

What is the meaning of financial control

The meaning of financial control means a kind of process that a company or organization uses to manage its financial resources for example allocation and direction.

All these are main parts of resource resource management. Financial control helps a lot in following business plans. This gives the advantage of knowing how much the company spends and where.

Understanding financial control is not a simple matter. To understand this, it is necessary to understand the appropriate examples under ‘why’. That is why we have discussed all the examples below:

  • Cash flow maintenance
  • Financial audits
  • Internal audits
  • Segregation of duties
  • Procurement-to-pay procedures
  • Analyzing balance sheets and income statements
  • Reconciling accounts payable and receivable records
  • Ensuring compliance with regulatory requirements

15. Explain financial analysis

Explain financial analysis

In these paragraphs we will explain financial analysis properly;

Financial analysis is the process of estimating the expenses of businesses, projects and other financial statements to find out the expenses incurred by the company in financial operations and to reduce those expenses in the future.

Financial analysis is commonly used to determine whether a company’s entity is stable, solvent, or profitable enough to warrant economic investment.

Some of the major activities involved in financial analysis are as follows:

  • Financial statement analysis
  • Ratio analysis
  • Trend analysis
  • Comparative analysis
  • Forecasting and projections

16. Explain financial reporting

Explain financial reporting

Through these paragraphs we will explain financial reporting, this type of reporting play a very prominent role in the basic functions of corporate finance.

Financial reporting is a kind of process in which the entire performance and stability of the company is tracked and analyzed and then a report is prepared after completing all the things.

The main goal of financial reporting is to provide complete financial information so that the company’s investors and founders can maintain their current and future financial status at the right time.

Financial reporting helps a company’s business partners make strategic decisions about company growth and helps investors understand how much capital or funds to use in the business and where to reinvest them.

Preparing financial reporting takes a lot of time as it consists of many steps, currently there are 5 steps which are written below:

  • Financial transactions.
  • Journal entries.
  • Posting to the ledger
  • Trial balance period
  • Reporting period

17. Simple meaning of corporate governance

Simple meaning of corporate governance

The simple definition of Corporate governance is a system of practices, rules and traditions. Which guides and regulates by any company. Corporate governance plays an important role in the management of the company.

Because it involves a relationship between the company’s management, board and directors etc. corporate governance is the most essential part of basic functions of corporate finance.

The main goal of corporate governance is to ensure transparency and accountability in the way a company is managed and operated.

Corporate Governance is not a small thing, it works like a building and is built on four pillars, it is important to know these pillars, that is why the names of these four pillars are written below:

  • Peoples
  • Processe
  • Performance
  • Purpose

Corporate governance also has basic principles on which it works and they are as follows:

  • Accounting
  • Transparency
  • Responsibility
  • Fairness

18. What is the meaning of cash management?

What is the meaning of cash management

The meaning of cash management means the process of controlling and monitoring the cash flows of a company to determine whether the company has enough cash to meet its financial expenses.

These are very important for both individuals and businesses. With the help of cash management, all the financial problems and liquidity problems of every company can be eliminated.

The primary goal of cash management is to meet the everyday needs of the company while harnessing supplementary cash gives rise to returns. In addition to the basic functions of corporate finance, cash management is also used throughout the business world.

Daily exercises are very important to learn cash management, so we have written daily exercises below:

  • Monitoring cash inflows and outflows
  • Predicting upcoming cash requirements
  • Match bank statements with internal financial records
  • Actively track and follow up on receivables
  • Review financial reports daily
  • Compare daily expenses against set budgets
  • Allocate funds efficiently across various accounts

In conclusion

In conclusion

In this blog we have explained completely about the basic functions of corporate finance such as Capital Budgeting, Dividend Decision, Capital Investment, Corporate Governance etc.

Capital finance plays a major role in financial activities of businesses through all the basic functions of corporate finance it is explained how important all these things are in business.

In this blog, we have given complete details of all the tasks so that you all can get more and more knowledge about basic functions of corporate finance.

And we are discussing the most important topics in the blog.and also discussed about objectives and functions of financial management because financial management is also plays a most efficient role in basic functions of corporate finance.


Q1. What are the 4 pillars of corporate governance?

A1. There are 4 pillars successful corporate governance which are written below:

Q2. What is the golden rule of financial management?

A2. The golden rule of financial management is that you should save 10% of your entire monthly income, so that you can recover the expenses in the future from the savings. this golden rule also applied on basic functions of corporate finance.

Q3. What are the criteria of investment decision?

Investment decisions are taken very thoughtfully because the possibility of loss in investment is equal to the possibility of profit. These parameters are also important in the basic functions of corporate finance, hence it has 3 parameters which are written below:
• Liquidity of the investment.
• Time horizon of the investment.
• The level of risk involved with expenditure.

Q4. What is the best example of capital market?

A4. The two depositories National Securities Depository Limited (NSDL) and Central Securities Depository Limited (CSDL). and it is the best ever example of capital market in basic functions of corporate finnance.

Q5. What is the capital investment scheme?

A5. Capital investment is a powerful scheme in the basic functions of corporate finance and promotion, it is an economic benefit provided to suitable businesses that are either new or expanding.

Q6. What is the scope of financial analysis?

A6. The scope of financial analysis covers a wide range of all the activities of a company, it evaluates the financial health and performance of a company. And this is a common question asked in Basic Functions of Corporate Finance.

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